The Realization of Politeness Strategies in Javanese Speech Community in Lombok

  • Diah Supatmiwati
Keywords: politeness strategy, refusal, Javanese community


Based upon a theoretical framework of politeness and face-threatening acts (FTAs), an investigation of naturally occurring refusal politeness strategies in Javanese speech community in Lombok was accomplished. The theory of politeness and face-saving proposed by Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) has been up to now the most influential politeness model, the basic strategies and sub-strategies used by members of the Javanese speech community in making refusal politeness in the daily communication for a wide range of offenses were identified and discussed. Both positive- and negative-politeness strategies within the refusal acts were noted. Finally, the findings from this sample were compared with the findings of previously conducted studies on refusal politeness strategy in other varieties of Javanese. Results from this investigation dispel Brown and Levinson’s claim that negative politeness is the universally preferred approach for doing facework, and it is advocated that additional investigations of (FTAs) and politeness using culturally-sensitive models of interaction be used.


[1]Brown, P. and S. C. Levinson. 1978. Universal in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena. In Easter. N. Goody (eds.). Question and Politeness: Strategies in Social Interaction. Cambridge: CUP.
[2]Brown, P. and S. C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universal in Language Usage. Cambridge: CUP.
[3]Errington, J. 1988. Structure and Style in Javanese. The University of Pennsylvania Press.
[4]Foley, W. 1997. Anthroplogical Linguistics: An Introduction. Malden: Blackwel Publisher.
[5]Grice, H.P. 1981. Presupposition and Conversational Implicature, in Radical Pragmatics, P. Cole (ed), pp. 183-198.
[6]Herrick, E. M. 1984. Levels of Respect in Javanese, in Sociolinguistic Variation. Albama: The University of Albama Press (pp: 80 – 98).
[7]Holmes, J. 1988. Paying Compliments: A SexPreferential Politeness Strategy,‖ in Journal of Pragmatics. Vol. 12: 445- 465.
[8]Horn, L.R. 1992. Pragmatic, Implicature, and Presupposition,‖ in International Encylopedia of Linguistics, Vol. 2, pp: 260-266.
[9]Lakoff, R. 1973. The logic of politeness; or minding your p‘s and q‘s. Papers from the Nineth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society. Vol 9: 292-305).
[10]Leech, G. 1983. Principles of Pragmatics. New York. Longman. Nasr, R.T. 1983. The Essential of Linguistic Science. London: Longman.
[11]Poedjosoedarmo, S. 1979. Tingkat Tutur Bahasa Jawa (Speech Leves of Javanese). Jakarta: Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa. DEPDIKBUD. (Center for Language Maintenance and Development). Department of Education and Culture.
[12]Smith-Hefner, N. J. 1983. Language and Social Identity: Speaking Javanese in Tengger.‖ Dissertation. Michigan: The University of Michigan.
[13]Sukarno. 2008. The Study on interpersonal meanings in Javanese wedding pranatacara genre,‖ in Humaniora, Jurnal of Culture, Literarure, and Language. Vol 20, No. 2, June 2008. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University.
[14]Sukarno. 2010. The Reflection of the Javanese cultural concepts in politeness of Javaness,‖ in Kata, Vol 12, No.1, June 2010. Surabaya: English Department, Fac. of Letters, Petra Christian University.
[15]Sulistyowati. 2008. Alternasi sapaan bahasa Jawa di keraton Yogyakarta (the Javanese terms of address in Yogyakarta palace), in Humaniora, Jurnal of Culture, Literarure, and Language. Vol 20, No. 2, June 2008. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University.
[16]Watts, R.J., S. Ide, and K. Ehlich. 1992. Politeness in Language Studies in Its History: Theory and Practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Wolff, J.U., dan S. Poedjosoedarmo. 1982. Communicative codes in Central Java,‖ in Linguistic Series VIII. New York: Department of Asian Studies, Cornel University