Smart Farming System for Hydroponic Plants Based on Internet of Things

  • Suryo Adi Wibowo Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang
  • Kartiko Ardi Widodo Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang
  • Deddy Rudhistiar Institut Teknologi Nasional Malang
Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Hydroponic, Internet of Things, Mamdani, Smart farming, Vertical garden


Background: The tropical climate that Indonesia has, with the sun shining all year round, is the advantage of Indonesia being on the equator. This tropical climate causes thousands of types of flora and fauna to grow beautifully and thrive in Indonesia as well as plants that can be cultivated, such as vegetables. It is not wrong if, at this time, vegetable plants are the target of flora hobbyists. Currently, several types of vegetable crops can be developed using the hydroponic or vertical garden method so that they can generate income even on limited land. This reason has made many flora lovers develop vertical gardens en masse or for hobby purposes. The problems that are often faced by these hobbies include the maintenance process and even delays in providing nutrients to the planting medium.
Objective: The researchers designed a smart farming system for hydroponic plants based on the Internet of Things (IoT) to facilitate the maintenance of vertical garden plants.
Methods: The method used in this research was fuzzy logic and the Internet of things.
Result: The results of system testing found that the average deviation of the TDS sensor was 3.229% and that of the Ph meter sensor was 4.081%. Using a smart hydroponic system can increase the growth of mustard plants by 1.775%.
Conclusion: IoT-based smart farming systems for hydroponic plants have been successfully developed.


[1] M. Dhanaraju, P. Chenniappan, K. Ramalingam, S. Pazhanivelan, and R. Kaliaperumal, “Smart Farming: Internet of Things (IoT)-Based Sustainable Agriculture,” mdpi : Special Issue Digital Innovations in Agriculture, vol. 12, no. 10, p. 1745, oct 2022. [Online]. Available:
[2] A. I. Anshori and G. T. Jayanti, “Pollution Absorbing Plant Design in Public Space Using Vertical Garden Method,” Journal of Industrial Product Design Research and Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 23–32, jun 2022.
[3] H. Indriani, A. Nisa Rafida, M. Khasanah, R. Christy Handziko, and J. Pendidikan Biologi FMIPA UNY, “Vertical Garden Sebagai Solusi Degradasi Ruang Terbuka Hijau dan Edukasi Santri Wahid Hasyim Yogyakarta,” Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat MIPA dan Pendidikan MIPA, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 94–101, jan 2020. [Online]. Available:
[4] Y. Irawan, A. Febriani, R. Wahyuni, and Y. Devis, “Water Quality Measurement and Filtering Tools Using Arduino Uno, PH Sensor and TDS Meter Sensor,” Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 357–362, sep 2021. [Online]. Available:
[5] I. Kurniaty, S. Sukmawati, A. N. Ramadhani, N. Fatimah, A. Renata, and R. E. Saputra, “Pembuatan Hidroponik untuk Budidaya Tanaman Sayur-sayuran sebagai Upaya Meningkatkan Kesehatan di Era Pandemi Covid-19,” Journal Lepa-Lepa Open, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 402–409, sep 2021. [Online]. Available:
[6] M. Kumar, P. K. Singh, M. K. Maurya, and A. Shivhare, “A Survey on Event Detection Approaches for Sensor Based IoT,” Internet of Things, vol. 22, p. 100720, jul 2023.
[7] K. A. Latif, W. Wahyudi, and A. C. Nurcahyo, “Prototype Sistem Pengunci Pintu Melalui Internet Menggunakan Arduino Uno Berbasis Android,” Jurnal Bumigora Information Technology (BITe), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 69–81, jul 2021. [Online]. Available: article/view/1327
[8] A. A. E. b. A. Allah Kamel and F. A. E. S. Z. El-Mougi, “A Fuzzy Decision Support System for Diagnosis of Some Liver Diseases in Educational Medical Institutions,” International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 358–368, dec 2020. [Online]. Available:
[9] Sotyohadi, W. S. Dewa, and I. K. Somawirata, “Perancangan Pengatur Kandungan TDS dan PH pada Larutan Nutrisi Hidroponik Menggunakan Metode Fuzzy Logic,” ALINIER: Journal of Artificial Intelligence & Applications, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33–43, mar 2020. [Online]. Available:
[10] A. Iswanda and I. S. Nasution, “Otomasi Sistem Hidroponik Berbasis Logika Fuzzy Menggunakan Air Limbah,” Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 572–581, 2022.
[11] A. Heryanto, J. Budiarto, and S. Hadi, “Sistem Nutrisi Tanaman Hidroponik Berbasis Internet Of Things Menggunakan NodeMCU ESP8266,” Jurnal Bumigora Information Technology (BITe), vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2020.
[12] P. A. Wulandari, P. Rahima, and S. Hadi, “Rancang Bangun Sistem Penyiraman Otomatis Berbasis Internet of Things Pada Tanaman Hias Sirih Gading,” Jurnal Bumigora Information Technology (BITe), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 77–85, 2020.
[13] F. R. Andrari, M. Maimunah, and N. D. Qadarsih, “Penerapan Metode Fuzzy Mamdani dalam Menentukan Harga Jual Ponsel Pintar Bekas (Studi Kasus pada Kayyis Cellular Depok),” Pixel: Jurnal Ilmiah Komputer Grafis, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 253–262, dec 2021. [Online]. Available:
[14] K. Apellido, M. Magbanua, C. Catolos, B. Bernan, and F. Friales, “Effectiveness of Arduino Uno as A Teaching Model on Constructing Automatic Hand Washer,” Indonesian Journal of Multidiciplinary Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 351–356, sep 2021. [Online]. Available:
[15] K. S. Kaswan, S. P. Singh, and S. Sagar, “Role of Arduino in Real World Applications,” International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1113–1116, 2020.
[16] L. D. dewi Pratami, H. G. Ariswati, and D. Titisari, “Effect of Temperature on pH Meter Based on Arduino Uno With Internal Calibration,” Journal of Electronics, Electromedical Engineering, and Medical Informatics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23–27, jan 2020. [Online]. Available:
[17] S. Wibowo, “Pengaruh Aplikasi Tiga Model Hidroponik DFT Terhadap Tanaman Pakcoy (Brassica rapa L.),” Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Tropis dan Biosistem, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 245–252, dec 2020. [Online]. Available: